A look at recent research regarding resistance training and its application to each event group in each season of the year.
By Sarah E. Murphy, Assistant Track and Field Coach, Winthrop University, and Seth E. Jenny, Ph.D., USATF Level 1 Coach, Slippery Rock University of Pennsylvania
The purpose of this paper is to provide a year-round resistance training guide for all track and field athletes. Evidence-based resistance training research for sprinters, throwers, and distance runners as well as more specific information for jumpers, pole vaulters, middle distance runners, and javelin throwers is provided. The information will follow the periodization for the typical track and field training year and provide detailed information on training techniques, recommended intensities, and various goals for each event group and training season. While many track and field teams are not equipped with a strength and conditioning coach, this guide will assist any track and field coach to incorporate resistance training into their general training for the entire track and field team.
Resistance training is defined as “a specialized method of conditioning whereby an individual is working against a wide range of resistive loads to enhance health, fitness, and performance” (Haff & Triplett, 2016, p. 136). Resistance training does not only occur in the weight room, it can happen in various locations—including beyond weight machines to free weights, band exercises, parachute runs, sled pulls, and various plyometrics like bounding, hops, and medicine ball throws.
Many coaches see the importance of resistance training but lack the knowledge to apply it to their athletes. Bolger, Lyons, Harrison, and Kenny (2016) interviewed seven expert track and field coaches all of whom used resistance training for their athletes. Their findings concluded that utilizing and applying recent research on resistance training for track and field athletes is difficult for the average coach. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to provide research-based year-round resistance training programs for all collegiate track and field athletes.
This paper will follow the outline of off-season, preseason, in-season, and post-season with research-based evidence regarding resistance training recommendations for sprinters, throwers, and distance runners explained across each season. More specific evidence geared toward jumpers, pole vaulters, javelin throwers, and middle distance runners will also be included for each within their respective groups.
The off-season should be considered as a preparatory period for the upcoming season. For the collegiate track and field athlete, this begins around June or July and carries them through the end of the summer into the start of the school year. The main focus for this stage of resistance training is hypertrophy and strength endurance (Bompa & Buzzichelli, 1994). Essentially, athletes should be increasing muscle fibers that will allow them to continue to build more strength in the proceeding seasons of training.
In the off-season, the intensity of training should be at a low-to-moderate level and weight should be lifted at 50-75% of the athlete’s one repetition maximum (1RM) (Haff & Triplett, 2016). At the beginning of this phase of training, weight and intensity should be at their recommended lowest to boost muscular strength endurance as well as hypertrophy. The weight and intensity should then gradually rise to 80-95% of the athlete’s 1RM to increase basic strength in the athlete (Haff & Triplett, 2016). By the end of the off-season, the athlete should have made strides in muscle size, endurance, and overall strength. See Table 1 for a summary of training recommendations across all seasons.
Sprinters. The off-season for sprinters (including hurdlers and jumpers) should aim to develop basic muscular strength that will prepare them to sprint, hurdle, jump, or vault. Delvecchio, Korhonen, and Reaburn (2015) reviewed the effects of resistance training on masters athletes in sprint events. They reported that resistance training increased muscle fiber size, muscle size, and neural activity to improve the sprinting abilities of the participants. Types of exercises performed were leg curls, half squats, bench press, upright rows, bicep curls, and crunches. Using these exercises to develop a basic strength within the sprinter is ideal for this season.
Distance Runners. During the off-season, the distance runner should focus on muscular endurance both in running and in the weight room. To develop muscular endurance, the recipe is a high volume of 15 to 20 repetitions with low intensity of about 67% or lower 1RM (Haff & Triplett, 2016). Performing this formula of resistance training will prepare the muscles of the runners to withstand their long upcoming races.
Because not all distance coaches understand the value of resistance training for their runner, Berryman et al. (2018) conducted a meta-analysis of studies containing strength training in addition to aerobic training and its effects on runners in a multitude of physiological characteristics. The analysis found a trend that the addition of strength training for distance runners can improve overall running performance through enhancements in running economy (i.e., amount of energy used at a given speed and distance) and maximum force and power capabilities. Having distance runners participate in strength training in addition to running will be beneficial leading into the subsequent training phases.
Throwers. Resistance training and practicing technique with the throwing implements (i.e., shot put, discus, etc.) are the main training techniques for this group. Effective use of time in the weight room is essential for throwers. Some may mistakenly believe that throwers only need to be strong (i.e., how much total weight one can lift) and not powerful (i.e., how quickly one can lift that weight). The more you can bench press, the farther you should be able to put the shot, right? Not necessarily.
Judge et al. (2013) found mixed results when they compared elite throwers’ farthest distance thrown with their 1RM bench press, 1RM power clean, and 1RM back squat. A significant linear relationship was found with the farthest distance thrown and the 1RM power clean, while no significance was found with the 1RM bench or squat, which are strength exercises. Thus, power exercises like the power clean are an essential portion of a resistance training program for power/strength athletes like throwers. Certainly, throwing technique may also have been a factor too.
However, Zaras et al. (2013) reported significant findings for both strength and power training with throwers. Seventeen novice male shot putters were split into two groups: a strength training group and a power training group. The participants were tested in shot put throws, 1RM strength, jumping abilities, anaerobic abilities, and muscle fiber growth before and after the six-week training program. Results indicated that both groups significantly improved in throwing capabilities, with the strength group demonstrating greater muscle fiber growth and 1RM gains while the power group improved jumping and anaerobic capabilities. Zaras et al. (2013) concluded that shot putters can benefit equally in throwing abilities following either a strength or power training program. Of note, the power training group demonstrated greater growth within Type IIx muscle fibers, which are the fibers that can produce the highest force in the body.
Basically, the off-season for the thrower should consist of strength building exercises that will transition to include power exercises leading into the upcoming preseason.
The preseason is the preparatory period that occurs directly before the competition phase. For collegiate track and field, this begins around September to October and lasts until the first indoor meet. During this time, athletes should begin to be more specific in their technique training and in their resistance training (Haff & Triplett, 2016). Rather than focusing on strength in the whole body, specific body regions are stressed, as they are key factors in performing individual events.
In the beginning of preseason, the intensity of training should be high and athletes should be lifting 80-95% of their 1RM (Haff & Triplett, 2016). After basic strength has been established in the athlete, resistance training should then shift to focus on developing power (Stone, O’Bryant, & Garhammer, 1981). During the power phase, weight and intensity should drop to 30-85% 1RM depending on the exercise (Haff & Triplett, 2016). When lifting lighter weights, the athlete must focus on speed of the movements. In exercises focusing on strength, the athlete should be lifting 87-95% 1RM to continue the development of basic strength (Haff & Triplett, 2016). At the end of the preseason, track athletes should be strong, powerful, fast, and well prepared for their first competition. Again, see Table 1 for training season summaries.
Sprinters. During the preseason, sprinters should be undergoing a multitude of resistance training exercises to develop strength and power. To accomplish this, training sessions must be organized in a way to set the athlete up for success. Hartmann et al. (2015) studied the effects of undulating periodization (i.e., nonlinear training where strength and power sessions vary throughout the week) versus strength-power periodization (i.e., linear training where one week focuses on strength and the next focuses on power).
Results indicated that both periodization methods can be effective, but undulating periodization created larger strength and power gains. Thus, coaches should understand how to space out power and strength workouts during the preseason to allow for optimum recovery between sessions while possibly favoring undulating periodization formats.
In addition, Balsalobre-Fernandez, Tejero-Gonzlez, Campo-Vecino, and Alonso-Curiel (2013) researched seven male high school hurdlers who participated in ten weeks of power specific training. These participants performed loaded jump squats two days a week while performing “normal” sprint training the other days—none of which consisted of strength building exercises. With a power training emphasis, the participants demonstrated significant improvements in 30-meter sprint, maximum strength, and maximum jumping abilities. Therefore, the implementation of power-specific exercises, like loaded squat jumps, can lead to significant improvements for sprinters during this precompetition phase of training.
Jumpers. While keeping the base training of speed and power, jumpers also benefit from different plyometric exercises. In a study by Misnova and Luptakova (2017), a group of female athletes participated in a 30-week plyometric training program and showed significant increases in jumping ability and power. The types of exercises performed were jump rope, squat jumps, one-leg jumps, repeated jumps, and jumping races. Having triple, high, and long jumpers perform plyometric exercises in the preseason can increase their jumping capabilities and make them more powerful as they approach the competition season.
Pole Vaulters. While the vaulter must be proficient in both speed and power, he/she must also acquire a significant level of strength in the upper body, lower body, and core. The pole vault is a whole-body effort with the help of coordination, flexibility, balance, and accuracy (Dusan & Milenko, 2015). In addition to sprinting training, extra efforts should be made during preseason training for pole vaulters to enhance these features, such as hand and grip exercises, to produce a well-rounded athlete who is strong in all parts of the body.
Distance Runners. Resistance training for distance runners can improve the energy cost of locomotion, maximal power, and maximal strength (Berryman et al., 2018). For example, Karsten, Stevens, Colpus, Larumbe-Zabala, and Naclerio (2016) tested 16 distance runners in a 5K (3.1 miles) time trial before and after a resistance training program. Following this program, those participants reduced their 5K trial time by 3.62% while those whom did not partake in a strength training program showed no difference in their 5K trial times. The study concluded that resistance training can decrease 5K times in distance runners.
Additionally, Mikkola, Vesterinen, Taipale, Capostangi, and Nummela (2011) split male recreational distance runners into three test groups: a heavy resistance group, an explosive resistance group, and a muscle endurance training group. Before and after eight weeks within their specific training regimens, the participants were tested in maximal strength, vertical jump, maximal endurance treadmill running, maximum anaerobic velocity, leg extensor activity, VO2max (maximal oxygen uptake), and running economy. All three test groups improved maximal endurance treadmill running, but the heavy and explosive resistance training groups were the only ones to also demonstrate improvements in neuromuscular functions.
Additionally, the heavy resistance group had the highest improvement in anaerobic running. Therefore, the study concluded that endurance runners should incorporate heavy resistance exercises in their training to improve their overall running capabilities and especially the sprint at the end of a distance race. Hence, a distance runner’s preseason should begin by incorporating heavier resistance training exercises in order to increase neuromuscular functions leading into the competition season.
Middle Distance Runners. Training for middle distance is a mix between both endurance and speed, as races are longer than a sprint, but shorter than “long” distance. Alotaibi and Mahmoud (2016) tested middle distance runners in three different test groups: an endurance group, a strength group, and a concurrent endurance/strength group. The groups participated in their respective exercises three times a week for eight weeks.
The concurrent endurance/strength group demonstrated significant increases in grip strength compared to the other two groups, greater leg and back strength compared to the endurance group, and greater maximal oxygen uptake compared to the strength group. The researchers concluded that incorporating both strength and endurance training results in higher strength and aerobic gains in middle distance runners, rather than just performing strength or endurance exercises only. Thus, middle distance runners should perform concurrent endurance and strength-based resistance training in the preseason to help them make gains both aerobically and anaerobically.
Throwers. During the preseason, throwers should have a solid strength base and should transition to more power-enhancing sessions while also working with throwing event implements. Linder (2010) advocates three elements that make for a successful thrower: technical form, resistance training, and power development. Judge et al. (2013) also notes that power development in the thrower is crucial and can be developed through various exercises like Olympic lifts and medicine ball throws. Therefore, throwing coaches should take special consideration to incorporate power exercises in the preseason to ensure their athletes are sufficiently explosive coming into the competitive season.
Javelin Throwers. Javelin differs from other throwing events in that it requires a semi-running approach and is particularly stressful on the shoulder and the arm (USATF, 2015). For javelin throwers, Burgyone (2007) recommends resistance training which emphasizes flexibility, speed, and strength for javelin throwers. He further advocates that javelin training be divided into a conditioning phase, strength and hypertrophy phase, a force development phase, and a speed phase. Burgyone (2007) also notes that when performing explosive exercises, the movements should be emphasized to increase maximum power in the athlete.
Power development in the thrower is crucial and can be developed through various exercises like Olympic lifts and medicine ball throws
When working on power, intensity should be dropped to 20-40% of an athlete’s 1RM and the actions should be done as fast as safely possible with correct form with three to five minutes of rest between sets. It is also suggested that exercises that aim to strengthen the hands and fingers should be performed. Exercises that are encouraged include the Russian twist, side slings, rebound rotational medicine ball throws, pulley throws, and Olympic explosive lifts. With preseason training focused on speed and flexibility in addition to power and strength, the javelin thrower will be well prepared coming into competition.
The in-season phase can be very long for the collegiate track and field athlete. With a two-month indoor season followed by a two- or three-month outdoor season, tapering and maintaining fitness must be timed appropriately. According to Bosquet, Montpetit, Arvisaid, and Mujika (2007), “the taper is a reduction in the training load of athletes in the final days before important competition, with the aim of optimizing performance” (p. 1358). Additionally, because the season is five months or more, a coach cannot expect the athlete to maintain the same level of fitness through the entire season without keeping up similar workouts done in the preceding seasons. The overall goal of the in-season is to maintain and taper athletes appropriately so they can perform their absolute best at the championship or goal meets.
During the first indoor meets, resistance training should be geared toward maintenance with intensity moderate to high and volume 85-93% 1RM (Haff & Triplett, 2016). Towards the end of the indoor season, one to two weeks leading into the championship indoor event, a mini-taper can occur that will test how the athlete responds to an altered training stimulus (USATF, 2015).
At this time, intensity should vary depending on the exercise. Volume should drop and speed should increase to prepare the athletes to compete at the highest possible level (Bosquet et al., 2007). Following this reduction in volume, the athlete should resume maintenance training at 85-93% 1RM one or two weeks after the indoor championships to carry into the outdoor season (Haff & Triplett, 2016). One or two weeks before the outdoor championships, a second more pronounced tapering should take place. With a large drop in volume and 50-93% intensity, the athlete will be fresh and fast coming into the outdoor championship events (Bosquet et al., 2007). Again, see Table 1 for a concise summary.
During the in-season, training sessions must be spaced appropriately to maximize potential advances that can be made as well as having the athlete physically prepared for any upcoming competition. Howatson, Brandon, and Hunter (2016) tested ten track and field athletes in a series of power or strength exercises and measured strength, power, and total work capabilities following each session. The results indicated that the athletic abilities of the athletes were reduced following a strength session versus a power session. Therefore, care should be given when placing a strength-focused resistance training session during the in-season, allowing ample time for athletes to recover and rest.
Sprinters. During the in-season, the sprinter should maintain a level of power and speed in order to carry him throughout the season. There are several resistance training exercises that are beneficial for this goal. Toma, Corin, and Cartojan (2011) found a significant correlation between 100m times and standing long jump, semi-squats, and squats in male athletes. Exercises that develop force for a sprinter create faster 100m times and should be used throughout the in-season to maintain sprinter speed.
As previously mentioned, plyometric exercises have been shown to increase jumping abilities in athletes (Misnova & Luptakova, 2017). Similarly, Lehnert, Lamrova, and Elfmark (2009) tested the effects of plyometrics on speed and power in athletes. The plyometric program lasted eight weeks and included various hops, tuck jumps, medicine ball drills, bounding, and box jumps. The participants tested their vertical jumping abilities along with their running speed before and after the program and found that both variables had improved over the eight-week period. Thus, plyometric exercises can increase explosive power and speed in athletes (Lehnert et al., 2009). Of note, while it is apparent that plyometrics can lead to drastic improvements for jumpers, this form of resistance training can also be of value to sprinters and the inclusion of plyometrics within training can be beneficial within the competition season.
Jumpers. Plyometric exercises of differing intensities can significantly increase high jump performance as they influence explosive power and other kinematic variables. For example, Ghareb (2014) tested two groups in a 12-week plyometric training program, where one group trained at a fixed intensity and the other trained at varying intensities. The group with varying intensities demonstrated higher vertical jump, increased kinematic variables (including takeoff velocity, center of mass position, and takeoff time), and an increased high jump performance. Therefore, high jumpers may benefit more from plyometric exercises that vary in intensity rather than working at a set intensity.
Pole Vaulters. As mentioned before, pole vaulters must train the whole body in order to be fast, powerful, and strong all at the same time. Cissik (2015) explains the various biomechanical movements that go into this technical event. He describes the two phases of the vault that must be acknowledged during resistance training: the approach and the swing up. The ultimate goals for the approach phase are to teach the athlete to exert force quickly and in the correct direction. Suggested resistance exercises include bounding, squats, power cleans, medicine ball throws, and hip extension exercises.
Next, the ultimate goals for the swing up phase include teaching the athlete to make the muscles of the body work in unison and to increase strength in the upper body and the trunk. Different resistance exercises that are suggested for this phase include overhead squats, good mornings, presses, rows, and Romanian deadlifts. Because the pole vault event requires the entire body to be strong, powerful, and fast, resistance training for vaulters should be focused to meet these needs during the in-season phase of training.
Distance Runners. During the competitive season, it is important for endurance athletes to maintain and even gain in athletic ability during the season. Bauman and Wetter (2010) studied the changes in anaerobic power for distance runners from the beginning of a competitive season to the end. Their findings showed that anaerobic power decreased in the distance runners at the end of the season compared to the beginning. While anaerobic power is not the primary energy system used in distance running, it is still used secondarily at key parts of a race including during surges and the final “kick” (Mikkola et al., 2011). Therefore, it may be necessary to maintain or increase anaerobic power through resistance training during the competitive season or the progress made during the preseason will be lost, ultimately effecting the success of the runner. However, this should not be to the detriment of negatively impacting aerobic running training.
Middle Distance Runners. Strength training is beneficial to the endurance athlete, particularly those racing the 800m and 1500m. A study by Beattie, Carson, Lyons, Rossiter, and Kenny (2016) found that 40 weeks of strength training resulted in significant improvements in maximal and reactive strength, running economy, and VO2max in competitive endurance athletes. While it is a common stigma that distance runners should not perform resistance training exercises in order to avoid adding excess weight to the body, this study also found that there was no significant increase in body composition following the strength training program. However, this may depend on the type of resistance training performed (e.g., high repetitions, low weight, etc.). Therefore, participating in strength training exercises may help physiologically to achieve faster running times in middle-distance runners during the in-season competition phase.
Throwers. During this time, the needs of throwers are similar to that of endurance and sprint athletes in that they need to maintain or increase muscular strength and power. Because throwers do not run competitively, weightlifting and other resistance training techniques are a vital part to their practice. In a case study one of the best hammer throwers Romania has produced, Ursanu (2016) reported many factors that are relevant to training throwers during the in-season part of the year. He states that intensity and volume need be adjusted throughout the mesocycles to achieve the greatest success from the thrower. Volume should be at its highest during preparation periods and intensity should be the highest during in-season competition periods. Using this information, coaches can strategically make strength and power gains in the throwers while allowing them to rest and recover for competitions throughout the season.
Javelin Throwers. Burgyone (2007) suggests that weight training take place twice a week for javelin throwers during the in-season competition period. Breaks in the schedule should include training that focuses on power and speed, rather than muscular endurance. As opposed to the average thrower, efforts to maintain flexibility and range of motion (ROM) should also be a priority during the in-season for the javelin thrower. Stoikov, Karapetrova, and Stoykov (2010) recommend the following lifts to be the most beneficial to the javelin thrower: barbell snatch, hang clean, power clean, and squat.
Post-Season (Active Rest)
The post-season is the shortest of all seasons. It occurs after the final outdoor meet for the track and field athlete and continues one to four weeks into the summer. The main purpose of this season is to rest and recover from the preceding long competition in-season. The post-season oftentimes will not include resistance training for the athletes and will mainly consist of active rest recreational activities. Examples of active rest activities that an athlete can do is walking, tennis, bicycling, or swimming (Haff & Triplett, 2016). Table 1 summarizes this phase.
Balsalobre-Fernandez, Tejero-Gonzalez, and Camp-Vecino (2015) studied the changes in force production in elite middle and long distance runners from the beginning of in-season to the end of the post-season. Their findings indicated that an active post-season resulted in higher force production during the competition season compared to those with a passive post season. As a coach, it is important to instruct athletes on how to actively recover from the previous season to be well prepared to begin the next.Summary
According to Bolger et al. (2016), some track and field coaches lack the knowledge and ability to apply evidence-based research within their resistance training practices. Therefore, the purpose of this review was to gather and present empirically-based research regarding appropriate resistance training guidelines for track and field athletes. Broken down across four training seasons (i.e., off-season, preseason, in-season, and post season) and across varying track and field event groups, this paper provides general year-round resistance training guidelines for all track and field athletes. To conclude, a summary of main suggestions for each event group are provided in Table 2 below.
Alotaibi, S. A. & Mahmoud, N.G. (2016). Effect of concurrent training on certain pulmonary, physical variables and record level of middle distances for young athletics. Science, Movement, and Health, 14(2), 247-254.
Balsalobre-Fernandez, C., Tejero-Gonzalez, C. M., & Camp-Vecino, J. (2015). Seasonal strength performance and its relationship with training load on elite runners. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 14, 9-15.
Balsalobre-Fernandez, C., Tejero-Gonzalez, C. M., Campo-Vecino, J., & Alonso-Curiel, D. (2013). The effects of a maximal power training cycle on the strength, maximum power, vertical jump height, and acceleration of high-level 400-meter hurdlers. Journal of Human Kinetics, 36, 119-127.
Baumann, C. W. & Wetter, T. J. (2010). Aerobic and anaerobic changes in collegiate male runners across a cross-country season. International Journal of Exercise Science, 3(4), 225-232.
Beattie, K., Carson, B. P., Lyons, M., Rossiter, A., and Kenny, I. C. (2016). The effect of strength training on performance indicators in distance runners. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 31(1), 9-23. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000001464
Berryman, N., Mujika, I., Arvisais, D., Roubeix, M., Binet, M., & Bosquet, L. (2018). Strength training for middle and long distance performance: A meta-analysis. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 13, 57-63.
Bolger, R., Lyons, M., Harrison, A. J., & Kenny, I. C. (2016). Coaching sprinting: Expert coaches’ perception of resistance-based training. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 11(5), 746-754.
Bompa, T. O., & Buzzichelli, C. A. (1994). Periodization: Theory and methodology of training. Human Kinetics, 6, 1-381.
Bosquet, L., Monpetit, J., Arvisaid, D., & Mujika, I. (2007). Effects of tapering on performance: A meta-analysis. Official Journal of the American College of Sports Medicine, 1358-1365.
Burgyone, L. (2007). Weight training for javelin throwers. Modern Athlete and Coach. 45(3), 26-27.
Cissik, J. M. (2015). Pole vault. Modern Athlete and Coach, 53(1), 12-15.
Delvecchio, L., Korhonen, M. T., & Reaburn, P. (2015). The effects of resistance training on sprint and endurance performance in master’s athletes: A narrative review. Journal of Fitness Research, 5(1), 5-13.
Dusan, S. & Milenko, J. (2015). Kinanthropology analysis of pole vault. Research in Physical Education, Sport and Health, 4(1), 87-93.
Ghareb, E. F. (2014). Effect of plyometric training with different intensities on kinematics variables in Fosbury-Flop high jump. Science, Movement and Health, 14(2), 135-139.
Haff, G.G., & Triplett, N. T. (2016). Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning. Colorado Springs, CO: National Strength and Conditioning Association.
Hartmann, H., Wirth, K., Keiner, M., Mickel, C., Sander, A. & Szilvas, E. (2015). Short-term periodization models: Effects on strength and speed-strength performance. Sports Medicine, 45, 1373-1386.
Howatson, G., Brandon, R., & Hunter, A. M. (2016). The response to and recovery from maximum-strength and power training in elite track and field athletes. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 11, 356-362.
Judge, L. W., Bellar, D., Thrasher, A. B., Simon, L., Hindawi, O. S., & Wanless, E. (2013). A pilot study exploring the quadratic nature of the relationship of strength to performance among shot putters. International Journal of Exercise Science, 6(2), 171-179.
Karsten, B., Stevens, L., Colpus, M., Larumbe-Zabala, E., & Naclerio, F. (2016). The effects of sport-specific maximal strength and conditioning training on critical velocity, anaerobic running distance, and 5-km race performance. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 11, 80-85.
Lehnert, M., Lamrova, I., & Elfmark, M. (2009). Changes in speed and strength in female volleyball players during and after a plyometric training program. Acta Universitatis Palackinae Olomucensis Gymnica, 39(1), 59-66.
Linder, T. (2010). Athletic power development: A critical component for throwers. Track Coach 190, 6062-6072.
Mikkola, J., Vesterinen, V., Taipale, R., Capostango, B., Hakkinen, K., & Nummela, A. (2011). Effect of resistance training regimens on treadmill running and neuromuscular performance in recreational endurance runners. Journal of Sports Sciences, 29(13), 1359-1371.
Milsnova, G. & Luptakova, J. (2017) Influence of plyometrics on jump capabilities in technical and aesthetical sports. Acta Facaultatis Educationis Physicae Universitatis Comenianae, 57(1), 76-88.
Stoikov, S., Karapetrova, R., Stoykov, G. (2010). The power and power changes in qualificational aspect for competitors in javelin throw. Transilvania University of Brasov, 3(52), 165-170.
Stone, M. H., O’Bryant, H., & Garhammer, J. (1981). A hypothetical model for strength training. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 21(4), 342-351.
Toma, P., Corin, G., & Cartojan, N. (2011). Study on power/performance ratio in the men’s 100m event. Annals of the University Dunarea de Jos of Galati: Fascicle XV: Physical Education and Sport Management, 1, 143-147.
USATF. (2015). Track and Field Coaching Essentials eBook [Kindle DX version]. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Ursanu, G. (2016). Optimizing performance capacity in women’s hammer throw, based on a just scheduling of action means and a rational dynamic of training effort parameters—case study. Sport and Society International Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 16, 123-130.
Zaras, N., Spengos, K., Methenitis, S., Papadopoulos, C., Karampatsos, G., Georgiadis, G.,…Terzis, G. (2013). Effects of strength vs. ballistic-power training on throwing performance. Journal of Sport Science and Medicine, 12(1), 130-137.
Sarah E. Murphy
Seth E. Jenny