Track Coach

“The American Method” Triple Jump Roundtable Part II

This is Part 2 of this wide-ranging discussion on triple jumping. Participants are Ed Roskiewic (ER), Boo Schexnayder BS), Nadir Simchamed (NS), and Iliyan Chamov (IC), Russ Ebbets, Coordinator

Technique Analysis

The evolution and proliferation of video recording over the last 25 years has changed from a monumental undertaking to the ease of a swipe of the finger. How much video of technique do you use on a daily or weekly basis? Is there a set “video day?” Do you let the athletes video themselves?

IC — Video recording is a great tool. It sometimes can be a burden if used too much. We use recording in the weight room measuring bar speed, force output etc. During jumping sessions I’m trying to stay 50/50 or even less with recording because most of the time athletes are far away on the runway during competition and we don’t have the chance to watch video during competition. I want them to be able to analyze and comprehend verbal cues versus imaging all the time.

NS — Video recording is now very much part of every technique session and competition. Athletes are constantly, recording each other, posting on social media outlets and are savvier and more involved than in years past. I will do instant review during a technique session when possible as well as setting video sessions to go over their jumps along with a comparative analysis of elite and world class athletes.

ER — I use my iPhone to film and give instant playback regularly. I also encourage athletes to watch videos on YouTube.

BS — As a coach I think it’s important to develop the coaching eye, and it’s important to let athletes “feel”, so I try not to use video in practice. I will video practice and review it afterwards to check myself and for use with the athletes. Athletes sometimes see what they want to see, and they have a lot of people in their ears, so I like to join in and guide their video examination of themselves. In most cases having them watch videos of other people doing things they are working on is more valuable than watching themselves.

Are there any formulas you use to predict triple jump abilities (or deficiencies) (i.e. — .75 x LJ distance x 3 = triple jump) when comparing the long jump versus the triple jump? Or do you feel these conversions have a limited value?

NS — I do not use specific formulas, but I look at preliminary jumping/power tests to assess an athlete’s ability to triple jump. This would be based on a natural ability to execute specific plyometric exercises, as well as rhythm and acceleration abilities.

ER — Limited value.

BS — None are perfectly accurate, but a jumper should aspire to LJ x 2.2.

IC — We as coaches are living in conversions constantly. With every run, jump, or lift we think how is this converting to performance? In terms of long jump to triple jump I see limited value in conversions. I believe the triple jump and long jump are two completely different events. This is why we don’t see many athletes competing in both events at world championships and Olympic Games. There are very few athletes as an exception, but it’s just an exception, nothing more. An extremely capable, talented, and well coached high level long jumper will be able to do not only a good triple jump, but probably most speed power events.

Willie Banks (USA) 2nd phase.

How extensive is your weight routine? Can you contrast a “weight day” from your pre-season training day with what is done in the later portion of a competitive season?

ER — Most gains in weight training should be made in the off season and early season. The focus of in-season training should be to maintain those gains.

BS — Nearly all of my key weight training days involve only three exercises—an Olympic lift, a gross lower body lift and a gross upper body lift. This never changes. A short list allows more quality. The biggest difference between early preseason and in-season lifting is that I discontinue heavy, slow things in-season in favor of ballistic type lifting. I also strictly maintain a polarized philosophy in the Olympic lifting program in-season (lifting really light or really heavy, nothing in the middle zones). Light stuff is fast and builds power. Heavy stuff builds strength. Middle zone stuff just gets you tired without doing either well.

IC — The weight room is a very crucial part of our preparation. In pre-season we do little bit longer lifts with addition exercises of event specific exercises. In preseason we use relatively low percentages with around 75-80% resistance with about 5-6 sets up to 5-6 reps for the Olympic movements. Closer we are to the competition things change drastically. We are going up to a 100% percent effort in very few reps and sets. If the competition season is very long (typically for a professional athlete) there are more varieties we use. Another big part of weightlifting prior, or during competitions, is bar speed. I always request maximum efforts over few sets. If the bar speed starts slowing down it is a sign we have to stop increasing the weights. In the end of the day, we are lifting so we can move fast on the track. Bar speed is a priority.

NS — Weight routines are generally three sessions a week in the pre-season to two times per week during the competitive period. Length of each session is approximatively an hour with complex and contrast training as a preferred method.

Regarding plyometrics – Do you use them the day after your heavy lifting?

BS — I involve plyometrics on big sprint/lift days. This ensures days that are very demanding on the nervous system, but also ensures the presence of days that might be tough in other ways, but are easy on the nervous system.

IC — Typically, yes. Depends in what part of the training cycle we are. I am a huge advocate of post activation potentiation, and all my training is designed around it. How the afternoon session corresponds to the morning session. I always design weightlifting based on what we have planned for the next 24-48 hours on the track.

NS — In the context of a light to heavy or heavy to light complex/contrast training, we will use plyometric routines accordingly. In other words, light plyos on a heavy lift day, versus more intense plyos on a lightweight session. The level and state of the athlete would also help quantify and determine if additional recovery time is needed between sessions. Using plyometric work immediately after resisted work is my preferred method to create the potentiating effect that a jumper needs.

ER — I view plyometrics as a part of weight training routine.

How do you measure the quality of plyometric effort – by time of the efforts or distance covered in the drill or both?

IC — I look more time of the effort in fall (early preparation), number or contacts is priority. Further in the season distance is way more important than the volume.

NS — I would say a little bit of both. It depends if the plyometric work is done independently or not.

ER — It depends on the drill but I would say both.

BS — I don’t measure everything but its more about distance. Timing plyometrics always confused me… better performances result in more flight time, therefore slower times. A big part of long-term triple jump improvements is to understand that the better jumps feel slower, not faster. As you improve, the contrast between the rhythm of the fast run and the slow phases grows greater and failure to understand that is a big impediment to progress.

In a four-year cycle (freshman to senior) how much more aggressive do you become in terms of quantity? And do you use the number of ground contacts to quantify efforts?

NS — Not so much in quantity but rather in quality and intensity. I usually stop an athlete from an intense work once signs of fatigue are visible.

ER — It depends on the individual athlete. Everyone responds differently to various components of training. In general, I do quantify by ground contacts.

BS — I actually drop volumes as athletes get older and stronger, constantly gravitating to more quality (rather than quantity) and intensity-based training over the course of a career. Great athletes produce bigger forces, therefore they create more internal damage when training and thus should do less. They require more recovery time. Young athletes aren’t really strong enough to hurt themselves badly yet, so they can do more and more often. The impression that high level athletes do huge volumes is faulty. They train with impressive intensities, with less volume and lower densities.

IC — Second to third year are typically the years with the most volume. This is the time they respond best to training and improvements. Senior year is typically more equal with the Jr. year. This also depends how many years of experience the athlete has. If someone comes to us as World Junior Champion and has trained about 6-7 years prior, I am more steady with them. If athletes are coming from a multi-sport experience and not enough experience in jumping events I start increasing the volumes through the years.

Injury prevention

What measures do you take to protect the athlete’s feet, especially the athlete’s heel?

ER — Work on soft surfaces. Use training shoes for drills and training. Very little jumping in spikes. Limit opportunities to jump in competition. Almost all technique work with short approach run (1 to 6-step approach). Very carefully monitor overall volume of training.

BS — In track, almost all injures are rooted in foot immobility. The collisions are always between the feet and the ground, soft tissues tighten, bones quit gliding, and the way forces are transmitted up the leg are altered in ways that produce most of your typical track injuries. I use barefoot stuff, trying to get the foot and ankle moving in three planes and getting the individual digits to work independently. I supplement this with soft tissue and chiropractic work on the feet. Good technique should prevent heel bruises. Contrary to popular belief you don’t get a heel bruise by landing on the heel, but by landing on your toes with the subsequent collapse/heel slap. I do use heel cups at times. I really like the old school hard cups, they distribute forces away from the bruised area. The padded ones don’t, but I have had a couple of athletes who put a hard cup inside a padded one with OK results.

IC — In the fall we stay more than a month on a sand surface. We train every single day, bare feet on sand. That includes our warm-up, sprint drills, sprints, plyometrics, and circuit workouts. I believe that creates great qualities for the Golgi tendons and works as an injury preventative tool for the season.

Heel protection is purely technical execution of the drills. There are no bruised heels that come from overuse. Overuse in that area is a result of wrong mechanics of the foot placement.

NS — I would emphasize mainly proper technique and good posture and alignment starting at low or moderate intensities. Having the athlete to be technically sound is critical to avoid injuries before progressing to higher and more intense work. Heel cups can also be used initially as a safety measure if the athlete is not quite proficient..

Do you do any screening for things like valgus collapse (knock knees) of the knees prior to doing plyometrics or depth jumps and how do you rectify this? With elastic bands around the knees or some other method?

BS — I address this as I take the athletes through the remedial jump work that precedes high level triple jump training. No special strategies other than a sound, patient progression of intensities and constantly insisting that landing mechanics are sound. I don’t like the bands, I think they are a crutch and at some point, you have to do it without them…

IC — Screening is happening constantly through every session. Mostly in the weight room. If you want to see weakness in an athlete they are more prominent in the weight room. By consistently advising and coaching proper mechanics we are correcting/addressing valgus position. I stay away from elastic bands and static exercises because they are very easy to mask or control without velocity. The only time I might use bands is for rehab purposes.

NS — An in-depth screening is done by our medical staff. They will then implement a specific plan to address and correct the problem in collaboration with our strength and conditioning staff and event coaches. The use of resistance bands as you mentioned while performing squats and various hip and thigh exercises would help stabilize and realign the knees along with specific stretching exercises.

What are three common injuries you see in the TJ and what do you do to prevent them?

NS — Knees, ankles, and heel bruises are common injuries. Prevention will start with technical efficiency and insisting on executing specific exercises properly. Also, addressing weaknesses, coordination, and balance issues through core and specific strengthening exercises. Finally, having a progressive approach in their development before introducing more complex and demanding exercises.

ER — Shin splints, heel bruise, hip pain.

IC — In no particular order I would say ankle problems, patella tendinitis, and hamstrings. With ankles and patella tendinitis I believe most of the time there are technical or mechanical reasons for the injuries, not weakness. In very few instances patella tendinitis can be provoked by muscle imbalance or overuse of the quadriceps. I frequently use myofascial releases in my sessions and stretching techniques. For all “anatomy trains” I do a lot of diagonal work which I strongly credit as preventing injuries.

BS — I don’t see any real difference in triple jump and other events as far as injuries except for the prevalence of heel bruises and other impact related foot issues related to poor landing/takeoff contact patterns.

As with all the jumps the chance to get “all jumped out” is an ever present reality. How do you ensure peak fitness and progressive development while at the same time not taking the “spring” out of the athlete’s legs.

ER — In my mind, keeping athletes healthy is the key to success. I coach with the philosophy that anything good is built slowly. I always lean toward undertraining versus overtraining. I consistently ask our athletes how they are feeling.

IC — I spend a lot of time in periodization. Every season I take a countless amount of notes re training, how athletes feel and when they perform the best. Starting the new season periodization, I go over the notes in deep detail and base the practice on positives and negatives from the previous season by trying to avoid underperformance or injuries. Within the college season it is unavoidable for athletes to experience down time or not feeling great. It’s important to have proper recovery and adjustments if needed.

BS — I think it comes from skilled, quality (not quantity) based programming. Dead-legged feelings result when programs value volume more than intensity. The level of intensity you safely achieve in training is the level of performance you can expect. You can’t say the same about volume.

NS — Adjusting volume and intensities as we approach peak season is crucial. Through a well periodized plan, athletes need to “deload” and taper down before major championship season and get the overcompensation effect needed to reach peak form. Having quality and progressive training blocks throughout the season, while allowing for rest and recovery is essential.


Subjective feelings of “lightness” on the day of competition can have a positive mental effect. Are there any practices such as wearing weighted clothing or having a brick in one’s backpack so that when stripped down the athlete feels lighter or springier?

IC — This feeling is simply a result of what is conducted previous days at practice. Post activation potentiation or simply good activation the day/morning before the competition is crucial. I personally bring a weightlifting bar and plates anywhere I can. If my athletes compete in PM we always do activation in AM. If they compete AM we do our weight room activation the evening prior to the meet.

BS — I’ve never advocated it but I inherited a few athletes who did such things. I was cool with it.

NS — I would apply forms of resistance throughout the work week leading up to a competition. Using vests, bullet belts, sleds, etc., to have the sort of neuromuscular effect that is needed but would not necessarily use it on the day of competition.

ER — No. Proper rest and tapering will make the athlete feel “light”.

In a six-jump series what tactics do you prefer? Do you like to see your athletes “nail” the first jump to put pressure on the competition or do you prefer to build performances throughout the competition?

BS — We should do fairly well on the first jump, we practiced for it all week! But great jumpers are taking chances and going for it… which means they will miss occasionally. Looking at any high-level triple jump competition, the jumpers who finish high will usually show two great jumps, not six. So, I look at the competition as a two-peak thing, trying to set the athlete up to hit a big jump early and putting them in position to hit number 6 if they need to. If things go wrong, I adjust.

NS — Building performances throughout the competition is preferable. Although “nailing” the first jump to send an early message and put pressure on your competitors is important, but I would prefer to see athletes push each other, battle it out and rise to any challenge throughout the competition until their last jump. I have always encouraged my athletes to stay competitive until the competition is over; therefore, teaching them to persevere and be resilient until the end. There is always magic that happens on the sixth jump when the pressure is on!

ER — In my opinion, that is overthinking competition. Prepare, proper focus, compete with enthusiasm.

IC — Every single jump is a 100% effort and maximum result is expected.

Do you modify an athlete’s starting mark as a competition progresses?

NS — Absolutely. There are many variables here. The state of the athlete as they get looser and faster as the competition progresses, the wind factor, the adrenaline level, etc. Constant adjustments are needed throughout the competition.

ER — Of course! The mark changes every day based on conditions and the athlete’s preparation.

IC — Only if needed. Always targeting to be consistent in the approach through all jumps.

BS — Often yes, but not reactively, it’s done with a plan. Usually, I’m backing people up as arousal levels increase, or moving them closer to get their feet under them better.

For competitions that have a qualifying round to be followed a day later by the competition, what activities do you recommend be done between the competitions to help the athlete recover and be prepared for the final of the event.

ER — The training program should involve overall body conditioning. A fit athlete will have the best chance to perform well in all situations.

IC — Very good cool-down with stretching exercises after the qualifying round. If possible and available, a flush massage for faster recovery.

BS — I start with local icing of any minor injuries after day 1. If it feels hot to the touch, I ice it. That’s followed by a lukewarm Epsom salt bath. This really produces relaxation, while ice tubs seem to tighten things up. On day 2 I lengthen the warm-up a bit.

NS — More of an active recovery session. Where the emphasis would be on rehabilitation rather than work. Stretching, easy drills and a visualization routines.

Triple jump competitions are conducted in a fairly orderly manner and have their own rhythm (as opposed to a pole vault that can drag on for hours). How do you recommend an athlete maintain focus during a competition? With the banning of electronic devices at the competition site (music, cell phones) do you use anything like flip cards, written affirmations or cue words to help the athlete maintain focus when the coach is not readily available to help out?

IC — I am against music during warm-up or as a motivational/focus method. I see it more as a “crutch” that athletes adapt to and depend on. Focus must be a process that is practiced every day the same way it will be executed at competitions. There are many other exercises for increasing focus, such as visualization, breathing, etc. We stay away from external motivators like music, headphones, flashcards etc.

BS — I’m not sure beginning to end total focus is realistic, so after a jump and the subsequent coaching I advocate a little mental down time, followed by a mental ramp-up for the next trial. Physically moving around in advance of a trial is important not only for warm-up purposes but because it brings about some sense of urgency and, in some cases, burns off some anxiety and nervous energy. Staying task-specific is a must; you can’t control what others do.

NS — It is important to fragment the competition and focus on one jump at a time and one phase at a time. I teach my athlete to also be independent when needed and have an analytical approach of what may have caused a jump to go wrong and how it can be adjusted and corrected. Learning to eliminate all distractions around is also essential by practicing positive self-talk.

ER — No. Proper practice and preparation will set the athlete up for success.

When viewing a competitive jump you have the opportunity to view the jump from the front, the side or from behind. Which do you prefer? What information to you glean from each of these viewing positions?

BS — The side view tells you far more than any other view, but it’s easiest to evaluate lateral shifting and rotational components from the front or back. I think it’s more important not to stand by the board, but away so you can really take in the whole effort from start to sand.

NS — Views from various planes can be very helpful. Front/back could help in determining how linear the jumper’s trajectory is without shifting body position and arm action too far and across the sagittal plane.

A side view would give you a better appreciation of takeoff angle, range and postural integrity throughout the run and each phase of the jump (i.e.: leg extension, foot dorsiflexion upon contact, backward or forward rotation, etc.)

ER — From the side. I run the jump over in my mind and evaluate various pieces that we have been working on.

IC — I prefer observing jumps from the side. In the sagittal plane we see more the effects of the gravitational forces and horizontal velocity displacements. From the transverse plane (front or back) you get information only about lateral twists or rotations. Lateral twists and rotations are also well observed from the sagittal plane.

Florida’s Jasmine Moore is now a stutter step away from 50 feet. While American men have been a dominant international force for the last 40 years U.S. women have lagged behind in spite of opportunities equal to those of the men. Tiombe Hurd (2001) and Tori Franklin (2022) are the only women to win a triple jump medal at a World or Olympic Championship. Do you have any thoughts on why this has happened?

NS — One major difference with different school of thoughts, such as the European and Cuban systems, is that the triple jump initiation is done at a very young age; therefore, they have an edge on development and maturity in the event compared to their American counterparts.

From a biomechanical and technical standpoint, the base is established early on in these systems and leads to greater proficiency in the event and will result in lesser risk of injuries and eventual success on the international scene.

Another aspect could be attributed to a lack of support and resources once an athlete leaves the collegiate system and its training environment.

Thus, unless there is quality post-collegiate coaching and elite group systems in place, it would be difficult to persevere in this very demanding event.

Having said that, I see a brighter future for U.S. female triple jumpers with the rise of the likes of Jasmine, Keturah, and Tori and a much-improved post-collegiate system where many Olympic training centers and quality private coaching are emerging.

IC — There are many factors for that. I’ll highlight a couple. First the women’s triple jump event is an event that requires many years of training and experience to master and develop. We see many women triple jumpers at the NCAA stage that performed great and years later they are on the top of the world rankings. Time for development in women triple jump is non-negotiable. The problem is coming from the high school level in USA. Lack of specialization in early ages. Most of the talented female athletes are immediately directed towards other events such as short sprints, long jump and 400m. In some states the triple jump is not even allowed in high schools. This is extremely shocking and disturbing to me as a coach. The best example is the last indoor NCAA Championship. This was the strongest female triple jump competition in U.S. history. Four out of the top 12 women are American athletes. Six athletes jumped over 46 feet, but only two of the six were USA athletes. Both have been fully dedicated to triple jump from a young age.

BS — For years the best American track athletes have often been funneled into sprints at young ages. The sport systems in many other countries don’t do this. In some successful countries with small populations everyone is a multi-eventer until age 13. Now that coaching education is available to everyone and we’ve moved away from some of the faulty training philosophies of the past, there are some good American coaches with a passion for the event producing great results.

Are there any games or tricks you play with the athlete to manage competitive stress and anxiety during competition such as promoting consistency on hitting the board, best two jumps total or things like averaging jumps for a competition?

ER — There is no “one size fits all”. The coach has to learn what works for each individual athlete. Some athletes compete very well while they are stressed out. Some don’t.

IC — As I mentioned earlier, we focus on the positives. Even if it’s the worst competition in their life we find a positive element and concentrate on it. This way we work on something that helped for the day but also is beneficial for long-term development. They feel accomplished about the performance and positive about the future.

BS ­— Subtle pressure to perform in training is the best way I know to get athletes ready for the pressure of performing in the meet. You can have fun in training but work has to get done and focus must be there. Changes must be made, not just talked about. Conversations and coaching aren’t the same thing. If they haven’t changed you haven’t coached. You can’t be Chuckles the Clown in training and Vince Lombardi in the meets.

NS — It is important to create a competitive and fun environment in training to alleviate some of the stress that occurs during competition. Helping athletes understand that failures and adversities are learning opportunities rather than negatives and a must for their growth and development. Deep breathing and positive self-talk during competition are also good practices to manage stress and eliminate distractions.

Do you always recommend allowing your athlete to take all their jumps, and if not under what circumstances do you cut back on the number?

IC — Every time we are at a competition, we compete 100% That means we are there to take every jump and every opportunity. If I cut athletes short of the competition it is only for health reasons or injury prevention.

BS — I do; I want them taking chances and going for it, not holding back. I want to encourage seriousness about a competition. To manage load, I would rather skip meets than skip jumps in a meet.

NS — This may vary based on certain factors. The importance of the competition, what we are trying to accomplish on any given situation, the physical and mental state of the athlete, etc.

I usually encourage my athletes to compete until their final jump whenever possible, to learn how to persevere and stay resilient throughout the length of the competition. This could also mimic a championships situation.

However, with the triple jump, being such a taxing event on the body, if the stakes are not high and we are using a meet as a training opportunity, I would then consider cutting back on length of the approach or the number of attempts.

Additionally, if athletes are experiencing discomfort or starting to breakdown technically, to the point where it is becoming counterproductive, then stopping them from doing further damage should be considered.

ER — It depends on the situation and the athlete. The coach needs to learn to be sensitive, observant and aware of many different variables. All of that comes with experience.

There are different methods to measure the lengths of the different phases of the triple jump with percentages (35-30-35%) or ratios (6:5:6). Do you use any of these or are you more based on how things look or sound? And how do you get an accurate measurement?

BS — I just teach technique and really don’t chase a particular ratio, but the best jumps in my program seem to result at 35-30-35. I do think that handedness patterns affect this and it’s hard for a person who uses the strong leg at the board (as opposed to the coordinated leg) to hit this ratio. They are more hop dominant typically. It bugs me that nobody takes handedness into consideration in research. If I told a right-handed person they must write with the left, it would look different, right?

NS — I don’t usually coach based on these ratios since each athlete will have his/her specific qualities. I instead look at the rhythm of the approach and how the timing of each phase looks and sounds. The objective is to have well balanced phases while conserving speed. Although these ratios are somewhat accurate and ideal for a successful triple jump, high angles and eventual collapses and difficulty to recover from a faulty phase is what needs to be avoided. I look at cause and effect and how to remedy and correct any flaws that may be encountered through different phases of the jump. Avoiding regressive angles and seeking progressive ones would be ideal.

ER — I pay attention to the rhythm of the jump. If it looks and sounds in rhythm, then it’s probably OK.

IC — Most research shows three types of distributions. Hop dominated, Jump dominated or equally distributed phases. I am always trying to create rhythm and balanced, equally distributed jump phases. Sadly, it never works this way. So far, I have worked with mostly hop-dominated jumpers.

Have you ever used anything like a jumps decathlon as a pre-season conditioner/competition to help with motivation during a fall preparatory season?

NS — I do frequent jumping/throwing/sprint and endurance tests throughout the season, more like a pentathlon but not necessarily a jumping decathlon. The type of testing that is necessary to break the long and monotonous fall training and is a great indicator of progression. I would encourage my athletes to challenge each other and have fun in the process and break into our all-time top ten list in our various internal testing.

IC — Never used that before. Preparatory season is very taxing and we try to keep it simple as possible. My sessions are very short, but I rely on the consistency of day-after-day build-up.

BS — I have a series of tests I use consistently throughout the phases of training. Jump tests are important but acceleration, power, speed, and weight room tests are important too. At LSU the late November testing pentathlon was a great event, a huge part of fall training evaluation and program culture.

Do you have any recommendations for further study? Websites, YouTube, CD’s, etc.?

ER — All of that. There is a wealth of information on the Internet and really no excuse for a coach to be uninformed.

IC — There is a vast non-explored area in terms of research in triple jump. I am currently working on research over hormonal differences between male and female triple jumpers. I strongly believe anyone working with athletes post high school level must consider exploring that type of research or self-education in the area.

BS — There’s so much stuff out there, good and bad. I just encourage young coaches to learn the science, and stay based in commonalities…the things all great jumpers do alike. Don’t get caught up in quirks or stylistic differences. If you’re succeeding, research and study should result in affirmation and small tweaks, not major overhauls. Look at everything, but stay centered. Simplicity is beautiful in its own way, but it’s not sexy. Timeless truth never fails, but it’s a bad commercial model.

NS — Dan Pfaff and Boo Schexnayder’s great material on the subject:

  • ALTIS World — YouTube
  • John Sheppard, coach from team GB, has great material on training methodology and horizontal jump documentation.
  • USTFCCCA Convention Presentations: Convention Symposium Materials ::: USTFCCCA Some of them in French, the FFA
  • JP personal NBA trainer has good content (broader view on jumping/plyometric exercises and injury prevention)

(11) PJFPerformance — YouTube

  • Coaches Insider Track & X-Country – Coaches Insider
  • Brian Mac BrianMac Sports Coach

In addition to many publications that I can get my hands on such as NSA (New Studies in Athletics by World Athletics), Jumps by USATF and various French documentation from the FFA (French Athletic Federation) and French Coaches association and of course Track Coach magazine!